Monthly Archives: January 2016

What Causes Toenails To Turn Brown: Home Remedies Brown Toenails

Our toenails are the most neglected part of our body. We only remember our toe nail or finger nail when we want to trim them or polish them. We attach very little importance to our nails. These are tissues that protect our toe and fingers from external injuries.

Though some believe it is possible to live without finger or toenails, this believe is largely untrue. There are lots of health issues that can affect our nails. One of them is nail fungus.

One of the major health problems that affect the toenails is brown discoloration. Though not harmful, it is unfriendly to look upon and so most people that have it will do anything to cover it up. But black or brown discoloration of the toenail is nothing really to be worried about because there are lots of homemade remedies that can be used for its treatment.

Causes Of Toenail Discoloration To Brown

A healthy toenail is white of pinkish in color. One of the major causes of toenail discoloration is frequent wearing of tight fitted shoes. This is why policemen, waiters and construction workers are at higher risk of developing the problem. Sometimes, several toes are affected at the same time. Adults are more prone to the problem. Other than discoloration, affected toenails can become thick and ridged. Discolored toenails can easily suffer from fungal infection. This infection is termed Onychomycosis in medical parlance. This fungal infection causes the toenail to give of a foul smell. It also inflicts pain on the toe especially when walking with a tight fitted shoe. Age is also a culprit.

The skin underneath the toenail often develops a black color days after an injury. This is referred to as subungual hematoma in medical parlance. It is mostly suffered by athletes because the tip of their toes hit their tight fitted shoe when they run. The pressure caused by a tight fitted shoe causes blood to accumulate below the toenail. Cancer or melanoma can also be responsible for toenail discoloration, but only in rare instances. Gangrene can also be responsible for black discoloration of the toenail as it causes reduced blood supply to the toe.

Home based remedies for Brown Toenails

As earlier said, brown toenail isn’t really harmful only that it gives the toenail an unpleasant look. If you have this condition and it gives you worries, then here are some home based treatments you can use in treating the problem:

  • If you have tight fitted shoes, swap them with larger and wider sized shoes. Cotton socks should be replaced with synthetic socks because they are better at absorbing moisture.
  • Applying tea tree oil on the affected toe is an effective home based treatment. This is because the oil is a natural fungicide. Apply the oil on the affected toenail before going to bed.
  • Apple Cider Vinegar can also be effectively used in the treatment of nail infection. Put the affected toe in a bowl containing ACV and then leave for 15 minutes. Dry your feet using a clean towel. Stick to this for some weeks to seek noticeable results.
  • Toothpaste can also be used in the treatment of discolored nail.
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List of Digestive Enzymes and Their Functions: Digestive Enzyme Roles

What Are Digestive Enzymes?

The GI tract incorporates and releases a lot of different enzymes that carry out various crucial functions which include assimilation, breaking food down and digestion. The food goes through enzymatic action at which point the solid food is transformed to fat and carbohydrates, proteins and taken in by the body while the waste is ejected.

List of Digestive Enzymes and Their Functions

The digestive enzymes are grouped in to 4 divisions. They are:

  • Lipolytic Enzymes: break down fats in to fatty acids and glycerol
  • Proteolytic Enzymes: break down proteins and transform them to amino acids
  • Amylolytic Enzymes: break down carbohydrates and transform them  simple sugars
  • Nucleolytic Enzyme: break down nucleic acids and transform them to nucleotides

Functions of the Digestive Enzymes

  • The enzymes situated t in the mouth are:
  • Ptyalin: this enzyme breaks down carbohydrates and transforms them to simple single molecule sugars
  • Amylase: this enzyme also crushes carbohydrates in to simple single molecule sugars
  • Bromelaine: is an anti-swelling compound and also makes meet tender.


  • Enzymes present in the stomach are:
  • Pepsin: breaks down proteins into peptides that are smaller.
  • Gastric amylase: breaks down carbs and changes them into  simple sugar
  • Gastric lipase: breaks down fat
  • Gelatinase: breaks down collagen and gelatine seen in meet


  • Enzymes present in the pancreas are:
  • Trypsin: breaks down peptides and changes them amino acids
  • Chymotrypsin: breaks down proteins and changes them to  aromatic amino acids
  • Pancreatic amylase: changes carbs and transforms them  simple sugar
  • Elastase: breaks down elastin
  • Nuclease: changes nucleic acids in to nucleotides


  • Enzymes found in the small intestine are:
  • Sucrase: crushes sucrose to monosaccharides
  • Maltase: changes  maltose to glucose
  • Lactase: changes lactose to glucose and galactose


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